About BioKinetix Research CorpWilson P. Ralston is president and founder of BioKinetix Research Corp. The company was founded Jan. 2, 1973 as BioKinetix Corporation to develop and manufacture a new type of chemistry analyzer based on Continuous Rate Monitoring for enzymes and specialized blood tests. Instruments were sold direct and through distributors to hospitals and research laboratories. The Arthur H. Thomas Co. introduced the first BioKinetix analyzer at the 1974 American Chemical Society meeting in Atlantic City. They were instrumental in getting instruments into several major hospitals. Massachusetts General Hospital bought two analyzers, and then a third one was purchased to monitor the blood supply for non-A non-B hepatitis using GPT screening. Children's Hospital in Boston had two chemistry analyzers and developed a procedure for measuring L-lactate by kinetic analysis. BioKinetix did not sell reagents, but provided test procedures using Boehringer Mannheim and Sigma Diagnostics reagent kits. Continuous Rate Monitoring was ideal for low activity tests, such as CK-MB and for a 30-second emergency room ammonia measurement by initial rate analysis. Routine measurements of cardiac isoenzyme CK-MB and comparative instrument studies were made at Bridgeport Hospital. Nagase & CO. Medical Systems Div., Tokyo, Japan sold the Ministat-S 2540 Chemistry Analyzer System along with the Union Carbide CentrifiChem.
The last chemistry analyzer designed by Wilson Ralston was an ultra-sensitive microprocessor-controlled rate analyzer called Cyberchem. This instrument was 4-5 times more sensitive, because it continuously computed rate using a convolution algorithm. After 5 years of writing assembly language software with 18,000 lines of code for a 65C02 microprocessor the instrument was finally finished in 1998. It was a wonderful chemistry analyzer that generated reports and plotted graphs using an HP ThinkJet printer, but by 1998 the hospital chemistry analyzer market had substantially changed.
About the book Electron-Gated Ion ChannelsIn 1999 Wilson Ralston embarked on a new activity—fundamental research on major questions in basic science. He developed a new theory showing how ion channels can be controlled by tunneling electrons. This was a big simplification with 4 tunneling electrons controlling all of the gates and timing in Na, K and Ca channels. It explains long-term inactivation, burst-mode oscillation and the theta rythm (4-10 Hz) using far tunneling sites. He asked why do we spend one third of our life sleeping—is there a simple mechanism that determines biological time? According to his ion channel models, biological time is determined by electron tunneling between two amplifying arginine or lysine NH3 end groups. It increases exponentially with tunneling distance. A lysine far site (for electron tunneling) spaced 17 amino acids (26 Å) from arginine on Domain I and II of L-type Calcium channels provides an explanation for long-term inactivation. About 8-hours of sleep are needed for an electron to tunnel back to arginine and reset the channel (Ref: Sect. 8-7).
This research was published in 2005 in the book "Electron-gated ion channels : with amplification by NH3 inversion resonance". Since the book was published he established a Microwave Spectroscopy Lab for recording spectra of fluorescent proteins. Recent improvements in the recorded spectra provide additional evidence for 25 fold amplification by inverting NH3 groups at the end of arginine and lysine side chains. His research indicates that amplication by inverting NH3 end groups is required for all life forms including animals, plants, viruses, bacteria and yeast. This revolutionary book was published February 2005.
About the authorWilson P. Ralston graduated from The Pennsylvania State University with a BSEE degree (1959) and had postgraduate training in mathematics at Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (1963-1964). His first professional employment was at Bendix Radio, Towson, MD (1959-1962). As Assistant Project Engineer, with an amateur radio license, he was selected to design a low-noise VHF receiver preamplifier for the first synchronous communication satellite system (syncom). This was subcontracted to Bendix from Hughes Aircraft Company. A second design project was a 136 MHz RF to IF Converter and Cascode Amplifier for a telemetering receiver used in the Minitrack Satellite Network. He also designed a silicon transistorized base station for a flight deck communication system and participated in system evaluation on board the Aircraft Carrier USS Forrestal moored in the Chesapeake Bay at the Norfolk Naval Station.
In 1962 he joined ITT Federal Laboratories, Nutley, NJ where he had the opportunity to work on time synchronization of clocks in the VLF band and with the first commercial atomic clocks. The clocks were cesium beam atomic clocks made by the National Company, Malden, MA. They were a rack-mounted version of their Atomichron and were installed at the 4 Strategic Air Command Bases. He gave a talk on the cesium beam atomic clock at the Westover Air Force Base, covering the physics and giving details of how to adjust the regenerative tuned divider circuits in the Frequency Synthesizer. The Synthesizer gave a precise 1 MHz output. The tuned divider circuits required occasional adjustment to compensate for vacuum tube ageing.
In 1964 Ralston decided to change course and learn about analytical-chemical instruments. He was involved in analytical instrument development at Perkin-Elmer 1964-1972 as Senior Engineer. He had the opportunity to update many PE instruments from using vacuum tubes to silicon transistors and integrated circuits, both analog and digital. Silicon FET transistors were new and he modified the IBM ECAP circuit analysis program to include FETs. Perkin-Elmer introduced a new line of instruments with all solid-state electronics designed by Wilson Ralston. They included the Models 700 and 727 infrared spectrometers and the Model 900 gas chromatograph and its three detectors. A new circuit was invented that for the first time eliminated the battery required for Flame Ionization Detectors. Also for the first time a constant current supplied the hot-wire detector bridge. This patented arrangement allowed faster warm up with filament protection and doubled detection sensitivity. The Electron Capture Detector, invented by James E. Lovelock, was also updated with solid-state electronics. This detector had the amazing sensitivity of parts per trillion and is used for determining pesticide residues and air pollutants. He designed the high-sensitivity detection system and thermoelectric temperature control system for the KA-150 Kinetic Analyzer.
Ralston got an early start in electronic circuit design. Growing up next to Conneaut Lake in Pennsylvania he built transmitters, VHF transceivers and a 100-watt carrier current radio station that broadcast classical music around the lake on 535 kHz. After passing the 13 WPM code test at the Buffalo FCC office he had a licensed radio station, W3ZCT.
He received 21 patents worldwide on chemical analysis instruments, including 5 on BioKinetix Analyzers related to Continuous Rate Monitoring. His other patents were assigned to Perkin-Elmer.
OPTICAL RATE MEASUREMENT METHOD
TEMPERATURE STABILIZED PHOTOMETER FOR KINETIC ANALYSIS
Messgerät zur Untersuchung von Proben mittels elektromagnetischer Strahlung
IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO KINETIC ENZYME ANALYSIS
IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS
US 3881992 GB1462509 SE349865
US 3877817 GB1452197 CH482118
US 3470355 GB1189009 DE1812540
US 3549863 GB1250900 DE1648276
US 4014612 GB1514507 DE2430927
CA 902215 FR1605449 DE2537494
CA 826780 NL6710467 JP51055284
Electron Biophysics Laboratory
33 Parker Ave, Stamford, CT 06906
Tel: (203) 327-7893
This history page was created on April 23, 2019.
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