with amplification by NH3 inversion resonanceThis is the subtitle of my 2005 book "Electron-gated ion channels". A great leap forward for ion channels is the amplification process which makes possible controling the gates with tunneling electrons. Thus, I will describe the upgraded NH3 amplifier shown in Fig. 2.1. Amplification and resonances are generated by inversion vibrations in potential energy of v2. The C-NH3 v2 has a center resonance at 670 cm-1. This is the gas phase 950 cm-1 scaled down by 0.705 due to Arg/Lys C-NH3 and its 2/3 binding energy. For ion channels the Fig. 2-1 potential energy curve has a amplification energy bandwidth window given by ΔE1+ΔE0 and a maximum energy gain: hE=(ΔE1+E0)/2ΔE0) =23.5. Energy gain is defined by the quantum transitions between ΔE1 and ΔE0.
The C-NH3 amplifier is for electrons. Its a solid-state amplifier represented by a potential energy curve similar to the well-known NH3 gas phase curve except energies are scaled down due to a single bond to carbon. All amplifying arginine and lysine amino acids have this energy amplifier. The amplifier reduces the energy and noise by shrinking the energy bandwidth. The energy values ahown are without a bound electron and exhibit Group-1 microwave spectra as recorded in Fig. 3., Images/image191.jpg
History: The inversion of NH3 in the gas phase has been extensively studied since the first theoretical model was described by Dennison and Uhlenbeck (1932) Phys. Rev., 41, 213. The NH3 spectrum was recorded by Cleeton and Williams (1934) Phys. Rev. 45, 234. It had a single broad peak due to collisions with air molecules. The technology rapidly advanced and by the 1940's the hyperfine structure of ammonia, at reduced gass pressure, was analyzed using absorption spectroscopy.
The above analysis is similar to Fig. 9-2. of The Feynman Lectures on Physics Vol. III., except this only considers the ground state energy. The above Eqs. 2.2 and 2.3 were used to plot curves for Fig. 2.1.D. The blue curves with exponent n =0 is like Fig. 9-2. The red curves are for n =2. They have amplification hE determined by the first excited state ΔE1.